So what does this transition theme consists of? Again we find the motive of the second phrase of the main theme: a minor third up and a sixth down (mm.7-8 and 27-28). But the rhythm has been changed to a hemiola. Above the running sixteenth in the piano in three quarter time the theme is in a two times three quaver rhythm. What a beautiful contrast! Then after a full cadential progression in F majorI have interpreted the B-flat in m.31 as predominant of F. One could think of interpreting it as a N6 for A major, another predominant. But after this we return via a V to F major and not to the dominant of A major (E major). That only occurs in m.35, the cadential area. (mm.31-33) a subtle chromatic change takes us via a vii06/5 of E major (m.34) to E major, being of course the dominant of A major, the key of the subordinate theme.
Thus from m.35 onwards we are in the atmosphere of E major and this is the cadential area of the transition. In m.38 we find the dominant of E major and the section ends with a dominant seventh of A major. The melodic material is a prelude to the subordinate theme but starts with a restatement of the very first motive.
Subordinate Theme or Second Tonal Area (STA)
In m.43 the subordinate theme starts, as expected in the dominant of the home key, A major. In analyzing the structure we find a clear cut after eight bars (m.50). There is a strong half cadence and the same phrase starts all over again with the voices exchanged between strings and piano. This phrase ends in m.58 with another rather strong cadential progression but this time it is followed by a V6/5 chord (m.59). We enter a phrase which is something of a fusion of continuation and cadential function.Caplin, Classical Form, 99-100. In m.64 a predominant is found and then a passing viiø4/3 leads us to a prolonged tonic (A major) of 7 measures.
So I think we can distinguish three segments in this theme, shown in table 3:
The most remarkable thing here is that there is nowhere a perfect authentic cadence (PAC) to close the subordinary theme. This is really exceptional for a classical style piece. The result is a fading out of the STA into a prolonged tonic phrase (mm.67-73) which ends quite mysteriously in pianississimo (mm.70-73). One more consequence of this is that there is no closing section.An alternative would be to end the STA in m.63 and define a closing section from m.64 onwards with a I-IV-I progression. I chose here for the option of no closing section, because the A major chord in m.63 has a seventh in the cello and therefore is not a very strong closure if any at all.
Now let us take a closer look at the segments defined in table 3. The first phrase starts with running eighth notes in the strings. In the piano there is a shifted comment on the running quavers. This is shown in fig. 2. After this, with the upbeat of m.48 a fragmentation is found in the piano part leading to the half cadence in m.50. So here we have a sentence structure of 2+2+4 measures. This phrase is the presentation of the subordinate theme. The next phrase (segment 2, mm.51-58) is in fact a repetition of the first phrase with the roles of the strings and piano exchanged (voice exchange). As has been noticed before this phrase ends with an evaded cadence and we enter the third phrase (segment 3, m.59).
And that’s it as far as the cadential closure of the STA concerned. Remarkable! Figure 3 shows the structure of the subordinate theme.
Between the iv/MD of the home key (m.99) and the VI/MD of the dominant (m.128) there is the sequential area. So far for the harmonic structure of the development. What a neatly designed scheme. Beethoven must have been a wonderful chess player thinking so many moves ahead.
Thematic material of the development.
Now I shall look at the thematic material used in the development. The pre-core (mm.74-81) starts with the first motive of the main theme that is fragmented in all three instruments. These four bars are repeated and close with a half cadence after which the core starts in D major, the home key. This starts again with the main theme the second half of which is in D minor and this seamlessly transfers into the basic idea of the presentation of the continuation of the main theme (mm.7-8). A fragmentation follows of this idea with only the first half left (mm.88-91). Then we enter a large segment of sequences. The first four sequences (mm.92-107) use a combination of the second half of the afore mentioned basic idea (marked red in the score, m.8) and an augmented version of the running eighth notes of the subordinate theme in thirds (marked yellow in the score, mm.43-58). In the repetition voice exchange is used. The same combination of thematic material is used in the next harmonic slow sequence (mm.108-118). The falling sixth with the incomplete neighbour note remains, the augmented running quavers return with sixteenths (piano) and triplets (strings).
Still heaving fun with sequences we enter a harmonic fast sequence the reduction of which is shown in figure 4. It starts in m.120 and again uses the falling sixth in an imitation like manner and in the second half it is combined with the first motive of the main theme.
This opening motive of the main theme is the material that is used throughout the rest of the development.
Form m.128 onwards there is an alternation of this motive and its inversion (going up instead of down) in four voices. Harmonically we are in the VI/MD of A major, the dominant of D major turning into iv/MD (D minor). In m.140 the dominant group is reached and the theme is combined in a contrary motion: two voices up and two voices down. In m.146 the rhythm of the repetition of the motive is getting faster and faster but the dynamics decrease. The effect is an enormous tension in which the harmony changes to the minor version of the dominant (m.150 and 152). Then an explosion of a predominant in minor in fortissimo (m.153) leads to the final dominant run in an exciting contrary motion to the recapitulation.
Should we call this a HC or a PAC. I would say this is a PAC (the first one we encounter) because of the G in violin which makes it a dominant seventh chord. It really asks for a solution so the connection to the start of the recapitulation is really felt. This might be called an overlap: the end of the development is the start of the recapitulation.
|↩1||Barry Cooper, ed, Ludwig van Beethoven, Volledig overzicht van leven en muziek, trans. M.M.C. Mengelberg et al. (Baarn, Tirion Uitgevers 1999), 228.|
|↩2||William E. Caplin, Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven (New York [ect.]: Oxford University Press, 1998), 37-39.|
|↩3||Caplin, Classical Form, 61.|
|↩4||Steven G. Laitz, The Complete Musician: An Integrated Approach to Theory, Analysis and Listening (4th Ed (New York [etc.]: Oxford University Press, 2016), 636.|
|↩5||Caplin, Classical Form, 127-129.|
|↩6||Laitz, The Complete Musician, 513.|
|↩7||I have interpreted the B-flat in m.31 as predominant of F. One could think of interpreting it as a N6 for A major, another predominant. But after this we return via a V to F major and not to the dominant of A major (E major). That only occurs in m.35, the cadential area.|
|↩8||Caplin, Classical Form, 99-100.|
|↩9||An alternative would be to end the STA in m.63 and define a closing section from m.64 onwards with a I-IV-I progression. I chose here for the option of no closing section, because the A major chord in m.63 has a seventh in the cello and therefore is not a very strong closure if any at all.|
|↩10||Caplin, Classical form, 27.|
|↩11||See for an explanation on the pre-core/core technique: Caplin, Classical Form, 141.|
|↩12||Caplin, Classical Form, 16.|
|↩13||Caplin, Classical Form, 179.|